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The Web Handling Handbook

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The Web Handling Handbook




The Web Handling Handbook
出版社 DEStech Publications, Inc.
発行年/月 2020年11月   
装丁 Hardcover
ページ数 756 ページ
ISBN 978-1-60595-598-8
発送予定 海外倉庫よりお取り寄せ 3-5週間以内に発送します


The Web Handling Handbook is a comprehensive guide to all technical aspects of handling or processing thin flexible materials written for anyone working with webs and web processes.

This engineering handbook is the first of its kind to comprehensively describe and discuss the wide range of technical aspects related to handling webs, which include paper, plastic films, foils, nonwovens, rubber, tissue, textiles and more. The book illustrates applied engineering principles and provides easy-to-understand calculations that inform how web systems are designed, maintained and operated. The handbook is meant to help readers to troubleshoot and correct defects such as wrinkles, bagginess, curl, and misshapen wound rolls. Written by foremost experts in web handling, this volume explains how to achieve the goal of moving the web optimally through web-to-roll manufacturing, as well as roll-to-roll and roll-to-sheet converting operations.

- Reviews and explains material properties, roller mechanics, drives, tension control, nip control, guides, spreaders, winders, and more as used in calendaring, coating, laminating, printing and other web processes
- Addresses each topic from fundamentals through advanced concepts, including recent research findings and their practical application
- Explains how web handling systems work and why webs behave the way they do with detailed illustrations and easy-to-understand calculations (in both SI and American units)
- Provides the tools needed to troubleshoot and correct most web handling problems, including proven real-world best practices
- Emphasizes more profitable web processing through reducing waste from defects, downtime, and customer complaint




Chapter 1: Overview
What is a Web?
What is Web Handling?
The Benefits of Great Web Handling
Web Line Basics
Key Web Handling Principles
Control of Conditions
Webs and Machines

Chapter 2: Materials
“It Depends on the Material”
Properties for Web Handling
Avoiding Web Damage
Dimension-Related Properties
Web Imperfections
Obtaining Web Properties
Thickness Profile
Basis Weight
Tensile Testing
Young’s Modulus, Tensile Stiffness
Poisson’s Ratio
Failure Stress
Flexural Modulus and Stiffness
Compressive Strength
Viscoelastic Behavior
Tear Resistance
Coefficient of Friction (COF)
Lab Tests for Friction
Surface Roughness
Surface Roughness Measurements in Films and Foils
Contact and Friction
Roughness of Paper
Air Permeance
Thermal Expansion
Moisture Effects
Orientation and Anisotropy
Plastic Films
Metal Foils and Sheets
Woven Fabrics
Fiber Composites
Multilayer Webs
Typical Property Values
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 3: Rollers
The Building Blocks of Our Web Machines
Web Path Design
Roller Functions
Minimizing Roller Count
Optimizing Span Length
Web Contact Restrictions
Tolerant Web Machine Designs
Roller Design
Roller Width
Roller Diameter
Roller Diameter Profile
Bearing Position
Bearing Life
Bearing Drag
Roller Inertia
Roller Deflection
Roller Shell Materials
Roller Heads and Shafts
Roller Coatings and Covers
Additional Roller Design Considerations
Cylindricity and Other Measures of Quality
Roller Mounting, Support and Alignment
Problems Caused by Roller Misalignment
Roller Alignment Standards
Frame and Mount Design for Alignment
Roller Frames and Supports
Roller Mounts
Dual End vs Cantilevered Roller Support
Roller Alignment Methods
Simple Alignment Checking Tools
Roller Alternatives
Concluding Comment

Chapter 4: Traction
Introduction to Traction
Traction in Web Handling
Traction Safety Factor
Available Traction
Web-To-Roller Coefficient of Friction
The Belt Equation
Lubrication of Wrapped Roller
At-Speed Traction Measurement
Air Entrainment
Air Lubrication and Traction Loss
Air Capacity of Roller Roughness and Grooving
Traction Transition from Friction to Full Lubrication
Web Centrifugal Force
Optimizing Traction
Minimum Wrap Angle
Traction of Nipped Rollers
Traction of Vacuum-Assisted Rollers
Traction Required
Loss of Traction and Slippage
Macro- and Micro-Slip
Scratches, Abrasion, and Roller Marks
Adhesion and Release Surfaces
Non-Roller Traction Systems

Chapter 5: Tension
Introduction to Tensioning
Designing a Tension Control Plan
Specifying Tensions and Tension Variations
Specifying Tension Zones and Drive Points
Developing a Control Plan for a Multi-Zone Web Line
Tensioning with Open-Loop Torque Control
Tensioning with Closed-Loop Control
Summary of Tensioning Options
Minimizing Undesirable Tension Variations from All Sources

Chapter 6: Drives
Introduction to Drives
The Purpose of a Drive
Review of Web Basics
Types of Motors
Speed, Torque, and Power
Motor Efficiencies
Types of Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD)
4-Quadrant Operation
Mechanical Drives and Components
Speed Reducers
Universal Joints
Adjustable Frequency Drive Coordination and Communication
Working with ASDs?Tools
ASD Parameters
Block Diagrams
ASD Tuning
ASD Modes
Surface Speed Control
Tension Control
Open-Loop Control
Closed-Loop Control
Torque Compensation due to Inertia
Friction and Windage
Load Sharing
Speed Droop
Web-Roller Slippage Detection
Eccentric Rolls
Sizing an ASD and Motor
Threading the Line
Roller Changes
ASDs for Specific Converting Sections
Safety Standards
Process Changes?Upgrading Older ASDs
Concluding Comments

Chapter 7: Nipped Rollers
Introduction to Nipped Rollers
Nipped Roller Functions
Nip Forces and Pressures
Controlling and Estimating Nip Force from Supply Pressure
Controlling and Estimating Force from Indentation or MD Footprint
Rubber-Covering Mechanics
Specifying Rubber Hardness
Rubber Hardness and Elastic Modulus
Nip Measurements and CD Profile
Causes of Nip Profile Variations
Nip Induced Tensioning and Shifting
The Ideal Nipping System
Summary Advice

Chapter 8: Guides and CD Path Control
Cross-Machine Position Needs
CD Position Error Overview
Large-Scale CD Errors
Small-Scale (But Potentially Critical) CD Errors
The Normal Entry Rule
The Span as a Tensioned Beam
CD Tension Variations and Slackness
CD Error Propagation
CD Shifting Mechanism?Misalignment
Shifting from CD Tension Gradient or Profile
CD Diameter Variations
Nipping Variations
Web Bagginess
Web Thickness Profile
Web Peeling Variations
Air Flow Variations
Spiral Patterns and CD Shifting: Real or Myth?
Summary of CD Shifting Effects
Summary of Considerations to Reduce CD Errors
Web Guiding (Edge/Center/Path Position Control)
Passive Guides
Active Guides?System Architecture and Options
Guide Response and Accuracy
Unwind and Winder Sidelay Guides
Steering Guides
Displacement Guide
Other Guides
Parallels Between Guiding and Spreading
Intentional Path Changes
Turn Bars
To Close with a Few Turn Bar Application Notes

Chapter 9: Wrinkles and Flatness
How to Read and Describe: Troughs, Wrinkles and Creases
Inspecting Samples
Wrinkle Types and Subtypes
Quantifying Wrinkle Severity as a Count
Quantifying Wrinkle Severity as Excess Width
Wrinkle Permanence
Mechanics of Troughs and Wrinkles
Causes of MD Wrinkles and Troughs
Diagonal Buckling
Prediction of Diagonal Wrinkles Due to Misalignment
MD Buckling and CD Wrinkles
Wrinkles Caused by Web Properties
Wrinkle Summary Thoughts

Chapter 10: Spreaders
Why Spread?
Spreader Options
Spreader Mechanics
A Strategy for Wrinkles
Compliant Cover Rollers
Concave Roller
Bowed Roller
A Simple Lane Model for After Slitter Spreaders
The Bent Pipe Options
Dual Spreaders
Expanding Cover Rollers
Edge Pull Spreaders
Tenter Frames
Spiral Grooving
The Textile Spreader Bar and Chevron Foil Spreader
Spreader Application Summary

Chapter 11: Winders
What Does a ‘Good’ Wound Roll Look Like?
Core and Near-Core Troubles
Winder Classes
Winder Arrangements
TNTs & Tightness
Range of Tightness Provided by the Various Classes of Winders
Roll Structure and Taper
Roll ‘Quality’ Measurements
Using Roll Hardness to Screen for Bagginess
Pressures and Other Stresses Inside a Wound Roll
Generation of Winding Stresses
Radial Modulus is a Key Winding Model Input
Air Entrainment
Winding Stress Models
Wound Roll Stress Applications
Some Winding Defects
Predicting Roll Diameter from Length and Other Measures

Chapter 12: More Web Handling and Processing
How to Use
Air Floatation
Air Float Ovens
Arched Ovens
Brakes, Pneumatic
Corona Treatment
Curl-Roll Set
Environmental Conditions
(Web) Flutter
Friction (Nips, Dancers, Controls, etc.)
Heated and Cooled Rollers
Liquids, Web Handling in Metals
Moisture and Relative Humidity
Roller Alternatives
Skewable, Skewing or Squaring Rollers
Slack Web
Spring-Mounted and ‘Self-Leveling’ Rollers
Static Charge
Static Reduction
Sticking to Rollers
Thin Materials
Web Handling in a Vacuum
(Brittle) Web Breaks
Width of Web and Wound Roll

Chapter 13: Appendices

Appendix A1-Apps (AbbottApps and other Internet Resources)
Appendix A2-Authors of Materials on Web Handling
Appendix B-Selected Resources
Appendix C-Conversion Factors
Appendix E-Other Web Handling Resources
Appendix F-Web Handling Timeline
Appendix G-Symbols and Abbreviations
Appendix M-Drive Motor Sizing for Center Winders
Appendix Q-Self-Test Questions
Appendix S-Best Practices for Taking A Web Sample
Appendix T-Test Methods
Appendix W-Web Handling Websites